000002 Theory of Colors

Â Colors are integral to programming technology and find extensive applications in architecture, engineering, interior design, graphic design, computer-aided design, animation, virtual reality, and numerous other fields. In this article, we delve into colors from a programming perspective.

Classification of Colors

Colors can be categorized based on various attributes, including Common Name, Decimal RGB, Hexadecimal RGB, Hue, Saturation, Value, Tint, Shade, and Commercial Name.

Decimal RGB

In the Decimal RGB classification, a color's Red (R), Green (G), or Blue (B) component is described by a whole number ranging from 0 to 255. Each component can have one of 256 numerical values.

For example, the color Alice Blue is described as 240, 248, 255.

Hexadecimal RGB

In the Hexadecimal RGB classification, a color's Red (R), Green (G), or Blue (B) component is represented by two entities, which can be digits (0-9) or letters (A-F). Each component can have one of 256 numerical values.

For example, Alice Blue is represented as #F0F8FF, where "F0" means 240, "F8" means 248, and "FF" means 255.

The Hexadecimal System uses ten Arabic numbers (0-9) and the letters A through F to describe colors.

Color Attributes

Hue: Describes a color's direction from white, as seen in a color wheel or chromaticity diagram.

Saturation: Refers to a color's intensity, concentration, colorfulness, chrome, or purity.

Value: Indicates a color's brightness or lightness.

Tint: Represents a color made lighter by adding white.

Shade: Represents a color made darker by adding black.

Commercial Names: Include color names used beyond common color names.

Mathematical Formulas

When classifying colors based on Common Name, Decimal RGB, and Hexadecimal RGB, mathematical concepts like Permutations and Combinations come into play. We aim to simplify these formulas:

P (n, r) without repetition {n>=r} = (n)! / (n-r)!

P (n, r) with repetition = (n) ^ (r)

C (n, r) without repetition {n>=r} = (n)! / ((n-r)! * (r)! )!

C (n, r) with repetition = (n+r-1)! / ((n-1)! * (r)!)

RGB Possibilities

The RGB classification falls under "Permutation with repetition" with n=256 (256 possible values for each R, G, and B) and r=3 (3 components).

Therefore: P (n, r) with repetition = (n) ^ (r) = (256) ^ (3) = 16,777,216

The RGB classification can describe a total of 16,777,216 colors.

It's important to note that while RGB can represent millions of colors, the precise number of colors the human eye can perceive is not definitively established and may vary among individuals. Estimates typically range from 1 million to 10 million colors.